Screen grab of a presentation, showing a slide with a model brain in the background with a caucasian male in front, looking into the camera.

Join me online at the Symposium for Research, Scholarship, and Creativity at Madonna University on April 21, 2021 (use QR code above or link below).
My presentation is available here at any time:


After more than a year adapting on-ground teaching to an online environment, reports of camera fatigue, anxiety, and other challenges to learning come from students, teachers, and researchers. Teachers commonly adopt a screen-sharing approach during live and recorded class sessions, offering students a side-by-side view of the instructor and the instruction materials (e.g., slide decks, illustrations, equations).

This session will examine the influence of this online visual arrangement on student learning. Through the lens of deaf space, the underlying challenges posed by the side-by-side arrangement will be identified and an integrated visual approach will be offered.  Examples of adaptations made in the SLS department will be included, along with a discussion of the associated technical methods employed to achieve content integration. This presentation was requested by faculty members after seeing an integrated approach during an online meeting. It borrows from my dissertation, which offers a theoretical conceptualization of interpreter geography and interpreter space, Sign Language Interpreter Space: a phenomenological case study of interpreted theatre.


Sharing slides as a virtual background.

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Bauman, H. (2014). DeafSpace: An architecture toward a more livable and sustainable world. In H.-D. L. Bauman & J. J. Murray (Eds.), Deaf gain: raising the stakes for human diversity (pp. 375–401). University of Minnesota Press.

Gulliver, M. S. (2009). Deaf space, a history: The production of deaf spaces emergent, autonomous, located, and disabled in 18th and 19th century France. University of Bristol.

Gulliver, M. (2017). Seeking Lefebvre’s vécu in a “deaf space” classroom. In N. Ares, E. Buendía, & R. Helfenbein (Eds.), Deterritorializing/Reterritorializing: Critical Geography of Educational Reform (pp. 99–108). Sense Publishers.

Kusters, A. (2011). “Since time immemorial until the end of days”: An ethnographic study of the production of deaf space in Adamorobe, Ghana. University of Bristol.

Kusters, A. (2016). Autogestion and competing hierarchies: Deaf and other perspectives on diversity and the right to occupy space in the Mumbai surburban trains. Social & Cultural Geography, 18(2), 201–223.

Kusters, A. (2017). When transport becomes a destination: Deaf spaces and networks on the Mumbai suburban trains. Journal of Cultural Geography, 0(2), 1–24.

Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. In Urban Studies(Vol. 29). Blackwell Publishing.

Mather, S. M., & Clark, M. D. (2012). An issue of learning: The effect of visual split attention in classes for deaf and hard of hearing students. Odyssey, 20–24.

Mather, S. M. (2013). Strategies to prevent visual split-attention with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Gallaudet University, Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center.

McDougall, D. (2021). Sign Language Interpreter Space: a phenomenological case study of interpreted theatre. Heriot-Watt University.

O’Brien, D. (2019). Negotiating academic environments: Using Lefebvre to conceptualise deaf spaces and disabling/enabling environments. Journal of Cultural Geography, 0(0), 1–20.

Sirvage, R. (2015). Measuring the immeasurable: The legacy of atomization and dorsality as a pathway in making Deaf epistemology quantifiable—An insight from DeafSpace. TEDxGallaudet.